I know of some movements like the French New Wave, Italian Neo-Realism, but beyond that, I’m pretty unfamiliar with the various film movements that exist. I’d be interested in hearing more about the other movements that exist and encourage those who are interested in those movements to start discussions about them. My idea is not only encourage people to talk about these movements they like, but to introduce others to these movements—creating a kind of primer for them. What say you, mubians?
It sort of depends on how fussy one wants to be with defining “movement”, but here are a few:
French New Wave
Are we willing to consider Dogme ’95?
French Poetic Realism. The French are very concerned with their movements…
(…in the bathroom. ’Cause toilet humor.)
There’s also the Czech New Wave, the 70s Maverick Filmmakers (US) aka the Film Brats…
The British also had their new wave in the late 50s and early 60s.
British realism – Mike Leigh, Ken Loach, Lynne Ramsay to some extent.
Japanese New Wave – Seijun Suzuki, Imamura, Teshigahara and Kobayashi to some extent.
New German Cinema – Fassbinder and Schlöndorff
Matt Parks, what films would you say are a part of the French Impressionism?
Czech New Wave is pretty interesting…
Oh yeah, ‘Kitchen Sink Realism’, that’s a fun movement.
So, are any of you planning to start threads on one of these? :) I’m thinking of a basic description of the movement and a discussion revolving around some of the best examples of the movement.
What about Giallo? Would that be a movement? I’m curious about that, although it doesn’t seem like my type of films/filmmaking.
Nathan said, Are we willing to consider Dogme ’95?
I don’t see why not.
French Poetic Realism.
I don’t think I’ve heard of that. Who are some of the filmmakers associated with that movement?
I know nothing about the Czech New Wave. Can you describe the approach, and maybe suggest some films?
New non-narrative cinema, starting in 2020.
Giallo strikes me as more of a genre than a movement.
Oh, OK. (I’m still pretty interested in hearing more about this. I’ll check for an existing thread.)
For French Poetic Realism, I’m thinking Jean Cocteau and films like The Beauty and the Beast but also Jean Renoir with Rules of the Game.
For Czech New Wave, my favourite film. is The Cremator from 1968 by Juraj Herz. I suppose Svankmajer fits into this movement as well and then there is that crazy ass film Valerie and Her Week of Wonders which is like fantasy horror surrealism.
How about “New Hollywood,” which covered many of the younger generation of auteurs from 1967 – 1980?
It is interesting how Italian Neorealism, along with Hollywood movies type B, had a strong impact on the inception of the French New Wave in the late 1950s. Close to that time, the Japanese New Wave was also commencing, as well as the Eastern European, particularly Czech and Poland. And, speaking from the economic point, Italian Neorealist films were being produced after the end of the Second World War, when Italy was recovering from the critical impact of the loss, bankruptsy and poverty. That time more and more filmmakers were seeking to depict the truth of the common people’s lives in their pictures. This was not particularly the case of the French or Japenese Waves. Both France and Japan were witnessing radical shiftsin their social and cultural aspects, thus invoking in filmmakers the need to reflect these inner changes in their films. It was the same time. These were also accompanied by tremendous achievements in film techniques and developement of the cinematic language. As for the Eastern European countries,due to Khrushchev’s reign and decline of Stalinism in film industry, new filmmakers became more daring, genuine and bold in their works, thus breaking free from many conventions, restrictions and even censorship occasionally.
Other historical movements would be German Expressionism, New Hollywood, Naturalism, Cinema Verite, Direct Cinema, South America’s Third Cinema and Cinema Novo, Bollywood’s Golden Age, Iranian New Wave, Hong Kong’s breakthrough (1980s), German’s Neue Kino (late 60s), etc.
Whatcha wanna discuss about giallo?? I’m up for that.
“Matt Parks, what films would you say are a part of the French Impressionism?”
It’s a looser grouping than some of the others, but generally it’s said to include Gance, Jean Epstein,
and Louis Delluc
(Delluc made significant contributions as both a filmmaker and as one of the earliest influential film critics and theorists)
Yea^^, by the way just naming ‘movements’ isn’t really going into the context of why they are considered ‘movements’, which I do recognize. So this thread could alternatively become a taxonomic breakdown of geographic locations divided into variable timelines with brackets enclosing the movements and descriptions written in between the brackets. All in all, each movement was determined by a social and historic context and many of them bled over each other, and oftentimes almost completely unrelated movies or directors rolled into various movements by proximity (see: French New Wave, East and West River subdivision).
Better to branch off from here into other threads that mention the specific movement in the thread title. Otherwise you’re going to end up with hundreds of pages of discussion that will be buried forever as soon as it slips off the front page.
There’s also the Iranian New Wave, which started Dariush Mehrjui The Cow in 1969.
How can we forget Mumblecore?
Yugoslavian Black Wave
Argentine New Wave
This took me an hour so appreciate it! (Okay, some of these might be more eras than movements, but…)
Chinese Fifth Generation (Chen Kaige, Tian Zhuangzhuang, Zhang Junzhao, Zhang Yimou)
Chinese Sixth Generation (He Yong, Jia Zhangke, Lou Ye, Wang Xiaoshuai, Zhang Yuan)
Classic Hong Kong (Chang Cheh, King Hu, Yuen Chor)
Hong Kong New Wave (Jackie Chan, Ching Siu-Tung, Ringo Lam, Johnny To, Tsui Hark, Wong Kar Wai, John Woo, Corey Yuen)
Iranian New Wave (Bahman Ghobadi, Abbas Kiarostami, Mohsen Mahkmalbaf, Samira Mahkmalbaf, Majid Majidi, Jafar Panahi)
Classic Japanese Cinema (Kon Ichikawa, Akira Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi, Mikio Naruse, Yasujiro Ozu)
Japanese New Wave (Susumu Hani, Shohei Imamura, Masaki Kobayashi, Nagisa Oshima, Seijun Suzuki, Hiroshi Teshigahara)
Indian New Wave (Ritwik Ghatak, Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen)
South Korean New Wave (Bong Joon-Ho, Hong Sang-Soo, Kim Ki-Duk, Lee Chang-Dong, Park Chan-Wook)
Taiwanese New Wave (Hou Hsiao-Hsien, Tsai Ming-Liang, Edward Yang)
Czech New Wave (Vera Chytilova, Milos Forman, Jaromil Jires, Jiri Menzel, Jan Nemec, Ivan Passer)
Danish Dogme 95 (Lars Von Trier, Thomas Vinterberg)
French Impressionist (Louis Delluc, Germaine Dulac, Jean Epstein, Abel Gance, Marcel L’Herbier)
French Poetic Realism (Marcel Carne, Jean Cocteau, Julian Duvivier, Jean Renoir, Jean Vigo)
French Rive Gauche (Marguerite Duras, Chris Marker, Alain Resnais, Alain Robbe-Grillet)
French New Wave (Claude Chabrol, Jean-Luc Godard, Jacques Rivette, Eric Rohmer, Francois Truffaut)
German Expressionism (Fritz Lang, F.W. Murnau, G.W. Pabst, Robert Wiene)
German New Wave (Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders)
Italian Neo-realism (Giuseppe De Santis, Vittorio De Sica, Alberto Lattuada, Roberto Rossellini, Luchino Visconti, Cesare Zavattini)
Italian New Wave (Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Gillo Pontecorvo, Francesco Rosi, Valerio Zurlini)
Italian Giallo (Dario Argento, Mario Bava, Lucio Fulci)
Polish Film School (Wojciech Has, Jerzy Kawalerowicz, Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda)
Soviet Montage (Alexander Dovzhenko, Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Dziga Vertov)
Russian New Wave (Mikhail Kalatozov, Elem Klimov, Kira Muratova, Sergei Parajanov, Larisa Shepitko, Andrei Tarkovsky)
Classic U.K. (David Lean, Laurence Olivier, Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger, Carol Reed)
British New Wave/Kitchen Sink Realism (Lindsay Anderson, Ken Loach, Karel Reisz, Tony Richardson, John Schlesinger)
Brazilian Cinema Novo (Carlos Diegues, Ruy Guerra, Glauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos)
Mexican Golden Age (which isn’t represented so much by directors as stars and producers)
Mexican Contemporary (Alfonso Cuaron, Alejandro González Iñárritu, Carlos Reygadas, Guillermo del Toro)
American Silent Cinema (Charles Chaplin, D.W. Griffith, Buster Keaton, Josef von Sternberg, Erich von Stroheim)
Classic Hollywood (Frank Capra, Michael Curtiz, Victor Fleming, John Ford, Howard Hawks, Alfred Hitchcock, John Huston, Ernst Lubitsch, Anthony Mann, Nicholas Ray, Preston Sturges, Raoul Walsh, Orson Welles, Billy Wilder, William Wyler)
American Independent Cinema First Wave (Stan Brakhage, Charles Burnett, John Cassavetes, Roger Corman, Jonas Mekas, Russ Meyer, George Kuchar, George Romero, Andy Warhol, John Waters, Frederick Wiseman)
New Hollywood (Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Hal Ashby, John Carpenter, Brian DePalma, Francis Ford Coppola, Monte Hellman, George Lucas, Terence Malick, Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg)
American Independent Cinema Second Wave (Paul Thomas Anderson, Wes Anderson, Noah Baumbach, Joel and Ethan Coen, Todd Haynes, Jim Jarmusch, Spike Lee, Richard Linklater, Michael Moore, Alexander Payne, Steven Soderbergh, Quentin Tarantino, Gus Van Sant, Terry Zwigoff)
So here are some questions. Where does Joseph Losey belong? How about Bernardo Bertolucci, Etorre Scola, Ermanno Olmi, Sergio Leone, Lina Wertmüller?
Do Peter Greenaway, Mike Leigh, Lynne Ramsay, and Michael Winterbottom add up to anything?
How about Olivier Assayas, Claire Denis, Arnauld Desplechin, Bruno Dumont, Cédric Klapisch, and Gaspar Noe?
Have you seen every movie ever made Zvelf?? I guess you could throw Ozon and Breillat with the modern French guys but I don’t really feel a need to group filmmakers into a kind of movement every time there are multiple good filmmakers from the same country. I don’t see how you could possibly group Greenaway with Leigh or Ramsay, I see them as coming from very different viewpoints…
I see a lot fewer movies than a lot of film critics I know (which makes sense since they have to watch a lot of movies they don’t want to), but my “movies watched” log went past 5,000 not too long ago.
That being said…
I’m surprised no one’s made mention of the Romanian New Wave. This is probably one of the more notable film movements in recent memory (starting after the new millennium). Cristi Puiu’s The Death of Mr. Lazarescu particularly was a favorite of mine from 2005, the year of its release. Likewise his Aurora (2010) was a high-mark for its respective year. Corneliu Porumboiu’s output has also been solid, especially the spectacular Police, Adjective (2009), which to me seems one of the best examples of the movement. Cristian Mungiu’s 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (2007) might be one of the more well-known Romanian works. It won the Palme d’Or. Finally, Radu Muntean’s Tuesday, After Christmas (’10) is another film definitely worth seeking out.
The Losey question has come to my mind before. I think he’s often overlooked, which is why any classification for his work hasn’t yet been made. Perhaps, there is none to be made. I’m not sure.
I can’t imagine Greenaway with the people you named. He belongs more with Derek Jarman and Ken Russell, more experimental and audacious filmmakers. For me, the question is: should Terence Davies be included with those aforementioned directors?
I definitely see the connections with Assayas, Denis, and Desplechin. Dumont seems to be doing his own thing, and might reign in time as the most unique French filmmaker of his generation. I still don’t know how to gauge Gaspar Noe. He has more in common with Michael Haneke than any of his French contemporaries. Enter the Void (2009) seems an important step forward in his career. We shall see.
I don’t think I would call Loach a kitchen sink member. He came a little later, even though he films ordinary people’s lives. However, as he says in Story of Film, the kitchen sink guys moved actors from London up north, while he found actors (including amateurs) in the north.
I would say the British new wave belongs of: Ken Loach, Mike Leigh, Jerzy Skolimowski (“Deep End”), Ken Russel, Michael Reeves (though I haven’t seen “The Witchfinder General”, it sounds very new wave to me), maybe Antonioni (“Blow-Up”?). Lindsay Anderson, Joseph Losey, Alan Clarke perhaps.
The wave thing is mostly a 60s and 70s phenomenon I think. The French guys were the first to be so self conscious they knew they were part of a wave. Today we have mini waves like the one in Romania, J-horror in the late 90’s, Korean cinema, Mexico, what they call “New French Extremity”
I’ve never heard the 60s directors in italy being called a “new wave”. Maybe because many of them started in the 40s and 50s.
And when did the French New Wave end? With Week-End? The Mother and the Whore?
My inclination would be to separate Charles Burnett from the “American Independent Cinema First Wave” and place him in a separate movement (along with Julia Dash, Larry Clark, and a couple others) sometimes referred to either as the Los Angeles School or the L.A. Rebellion.
Yeah, I forgot about the Romanians, and I love some of those films.
Mubiuser, yes, it might make more sense to separate the British New Wave from the Kitchen Sinkers like you did. The problem I have with Losey is that he’s a transplanted American. I mean if you included him, would you include Kubrick?
You’re right, Matt. I really wasn’t sure whether Burnett belonged and just tossed him in.