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LE CINÉMA, C'EST JEAN RENOIR

by Kenji
LE CINÉMA, C'EST JEAN RENOIR by Kenji
Jean Renoir ~ Click on Read More and the green links. *Named the world’s greatest director by Chaplin and Welles, revered “spiritual godfather” of the French New Wave, father of Italian neo-realism, master of mise-en-scene, deep staging, choreography and unobtrusive camerawork; international humanist, 30s leftist, enthusiast for theatre and literature, writer, actor, producer, improviser, maestro cinematic fuser of the arts, pilot, wounded WW1 chevalier, one-time potter, warm, engaging and collaborative auteur, affable uncle figure, lyrical nature lover (but toughened rabbit killer), tireless experimenter, grand teller of tales, all-round… Read more

Jean Renoir

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Click on Read More and the green links.

*Named the world’s greatest director by Chaplin and Welles, revered “spiritual godfather” of the French New Wave, father of Italian neo-realism, master of mise-en-scene, deep staging, choreography and unobtrusive camerawork; international humanist, 30s leftist, enthusiast for theatre and literature, writer, actor, producer, improviser, maestro cinematic fuser of the arts, pilot, wounded WW1 chevalier, one-time potter, warm, engaging and collaborative auteur, affable uncle figure, lyrical nature lover (but toughened rabbit killer), tireless experimenter, grand teller of tales, all-round good guy (but apparently not the kindest of the brothers), influence on Satyajit Ray and the ensuing recognition of Indian cinema, and yes, he had the rare spark to surpass his more famous father, delving deep into major issues and human nature with satirical bite as well as a fine non-judgmental spirit. Renoir was vehemently opposed to the greed and exploitation of capitalism (as well as hateful nationalism and artificial boundaries between people), he valued the individual as well as the collective. The individuals in his films are full of character and life.

Next to Renoir, the current crop of directors seem narrow, mannered, coldly calculating or else juvenile wannabes resorting to overblown bombast. Where is his equal today?*

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A Day in the Country

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Early Years
Renoir was born in the Montmartre district of Paris, France. He was the second son of Aline Charigot and the French painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir. He was also the brother of Pierre Renoir, a noted French stage and film actor; the uncle of Claude Renoir, a cinematographer; and the father of Alain Renoir, late professor emeritus of comparative literature at the University of California at Berkeley.

As a child, Renoir moved with his family to the south of France. He and the rest of the Renoir family were the subjects of many of his father’s paintings. His father’s financial success ensured that the young Renoir was educated at fashionable boarding schools, which, as he later wrote, he continually ran away from.

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Jean as The White Pierrot

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At the outbreak of World War I Renoir was serving in the French cavalry. Later, after receiving a bullet in his leg, he served as a reconnaissance pilot. His leg injury left him with a permanent limp, but allowed him to discover the cinema, where he used to recuperate with his leg elevated while watching the films of Charlie Chaplin and others. After the war, Renoir followed his father’s suggestion and tried his hand at making ceramics, but he soon set that aside to make films, inspired, in particular, by Erich von Stroheim’s work.

In 1924, Renoir directed the first of his nine silent films, most of which starred his first wife, who was also his father’s last model, Catherine Hessling. At this stage his films did not produce a return, and Renoir gradually sold paintings inherited from his father to finance them.

International success in the 1930s
During the 1930s Renoir enjoyed great success as a filmmaker. In 1931 he directed his first sound films, On purge bébé and La Chienne (The Bitch). The following year he made Boudu Saved From Drowning (Boudu sauvé des eaux), a farcical sendup of the pretensions of a middle-class bookseller and his family, who meet with comic, and ultimately disastrous, results when they attempt to reform a vagrant played by Michel Simon.

By the middle of the decade Renoir was associated with the Popular Front, and several of his films, such as The Crime of Monsieur Lange (Le Crime de Monsieur Lange, 1935), La Vie Est a Nous (People of France) (1936) and La Marseillaise (1938), reflect the movement’s politics.His 1935 film Toni was to be a major influence on Visconti and Italian neo-realism.

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Toni

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Following the frolicking but poignant featurette A Day in the Country (Une Partie de Campagne) (1936), which was curtailed by bad weather, in 1937 he made one of his most well-known films, Grand Illusion (La Grande Illusion), starring Erich von Stroheim and the immensely popular Jean Gabin. A film on the theme of brotherhood about a series of escape attempts by French POWs during World War I, it was enormously successful but was also banned in Germany, and later in Italy after having won the “Best Artistic Ensemble” award at the Venice Film Festival. This was followed by another cinematic success: The Human Beast (La Bête Humaine) (1938), a film noir tragedy based on the novel by Émile Zola and starring Simone Simon and Jean Gabin.

In 1939, now able to co-finance his own films, Renoir made The Rules of the Game (La Règle du Jeu), a satire on contemporary French society with an ensemble cast. Renoir himself played the character Octave, a sort of master of ceremonies in the film. The film was met with derision by Parisian audiences upon its premiere and was extensively reedited, but without success. It was his greatest commercial failure. A few weeks after the outbreak of World War II, the film was banned. The ban was lifted briefly in 1940, but after the fall of France it was banned again. Subsequently the original negative of the film was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid. It was not until the 1950s that two French film enthusiasts, Jean Gaborit and Jacques Durand, with Renoir’s cooperation, were able to reconstruct a near-complete print of the film. Today The Rules of the Game appears frequently near the top of critic’s polls as one of the best films ever made.

Hollywood years
A week after the disastrous premiere of The Rules of the Game, in July 1939, Renoir went to Rome with Karl Koch and Dido Freire, subsequently his second wife, to work on the script for a film version of Tosca. This he abandoned to return to France in August 1939, to make himself available for military service. At the age of 45, he became a lieutenant in the French Army Film Service, and was sent back to Italy, to teach film at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia in Rome, and resume work on Tosca. The French government hoped this cultural exchange would help maintain friendly relations with Italy, which had not yet entered the war. As war approached, however, he returned to France and then, after Germany invaded France in May 1940, he fled to the United States with Dido.

In Hollywood, Renoir had difficulty finding projects that suited him. In 1943, he co-produced and directed an anti-Nazi film set in France, This Land Is Mine, starring Maureen O’Hara and Charles Laughton. Two years later, he made The Southerner, a film about Texas sharecroppers that is often regarded as his best work in America and one for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Directing.

In 1945 he made Diary of a Chambermaid, an adaptation of the Octave Mirbeau novel, Le Journal d’une femme de chambre, starring Paulette Goddard and Burgess Meredith. The Woman on the Beach (1947) starring Joan Bennett and Robert Ryan was heavily reshot and reedited after it fared poorly among preview audiences in California. Both films were poorly received and were the last films Renoir made in America. At this time, Renoir became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

A transatlantic life
In 1949 Renoir traveled to India and made The River, his first color film. Based on the novel of the same name by Rumer Godden, the film is both a meditation on human beings’ relationship with nature and a coming of age story of three young girls in colonial India. The film won the International Prize at the Venice Film Festival in 1951.

After returning to work in Europe, Renoir made a trilogy of Technicolor musical comedies on the subjects of theater, politics and commerce: Le Carrosse d’or (The Golden Coach) (1953) with Anna Magnani, French Cancan with Jean Gabin and María Félix (1955) and Eléna et les hommes (Elena and Her Men) with Ingrid Bergman and Jean Marais (1956). During the same period, Renoir produced in Paris the Clifford Odets play, The Big Knife, and wrote and produced in Paris for Leslie Caron his own play, Orvet.

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The Golden Coach

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Renoir’s next films were made in 1959 using techniques Renoir adapted from live television at the time. Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Picnic on the Grass), starring Paul Meurisse and Catherine Rouvel, was filmed on the grounds of Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s home in Cagnes-sur-Mer, and Le Testament du Docteur Cordelier (The Testament of Doctor Cordelier), starring Jean-Louis Barrault, was made in the streets of Paris and its suburbs.

In 1962 Renoir made what was to be his penultimate film, Le Caporal épinglé (The Elusive Corporal) with Jean-Pierre Cassel and Claude Brasseur. Set among French POWs during their internment in labor camps by the Nazis during World War II, the film explores the twin human needs for freedom, on the one hand, and emotional and economic security, on the other.

In 1962, Renoir published a loving memoir of his father, Renoir, My Father, in which he described the profound influence his father had on him and his work. As funds for his film projects were becoming harder to obtain, Renoir continued to write screenplays and then wrote a novel, The Notebooks of Captain Georges, published in 1966. Captain Georges is the nostalgic account of a wealthy young man’s sentimental education and love for a peasant girl, a theme also explored earlier in his films Diary of a Chambermaid and Picnic on the Grass.

Last years
Renoir made his last film in 1969, Le Petit théâtre de Jean Renoir (The Little Theatre of Jean Renoir). The film is a series of four short films made in a variety of styles and is, in many ways, one of his most challenging, avant-garde and unconventional works.

Thereafter, unable to find financing for his films and in declining health, Renoir spent the last years of his life receiving friends at his home in Beverly Hills and writing novels and his memoirs.

In 1973 Renoir was preparing a production of his stage play Carola with Leslie Caron and Mel Ferrer when he fell ill and was unable to direct. The producer Norman Lloyd, a friend and actor in The Southerner, took over the direction of the play, which was broadcast in the series program Hollywood Television Theater on WNET, Channel 13, New York on February 3, 1973.

In his memoirs My Life and My Films (1974) Renoir wrote of the influence exercised upon him by his cousin, Gabrielle Renard, the woman seen in the portrait by his father above. Shortly before his birth, she came to live with the Renoir family, and helped raise the young boy. She introduced him to the Guignol puppet shows in the Montmartre of his childhood: “She taught me to see the face behind the mask and the fraud behind the flourishes”, he wrote. “She taught me to detest the cliché.” He concluded his memoirs with the words he had often spoken as a child, “Wait for me, Gabrielle.”

In 1975 he received a lifetime Academy Award for his contribution to the motion picture industry and that same year a retrospective of his work was shown at the National Film Theatre in London. Also in 1975, the government of France elevated him to the rank of commander in the Légion d’honneur.

Jean Renoir died in Beverly Hills, California on February 12, 1979. His body was returned to France and buried beside his family in the cemetery at Essoyes, Aube, France."

(taken from and with additions to Wikipedia)

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Rules of the Game

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“You can’t see the borders. They’re man-made. Nature couldn’t care less” (Grand Illusion)

“How to describe him? He really is the man in the bearskin in La Regle du Jeu: debonair, decisive, healthy, concealing his force and his finesse with a mask of slow deliberation and of patience” (Jacques Doniol- Valcroze)

“A little like a bear, a little slow, slightly lost in the clouds, Jean Renoir doesn’t throw himself at people; nor do his films; one must merit their confidence…when he practises his craft, he’s unleashed, he spares nothing, he delivers himself over to his demon” (Alexandre Arnoux)

“Perhaps the least reassuring part of Renoir’s vision is that, despite a lack of emphasis on malice, it pivots on disorder: rape, murder, and revolution” (Ray Durgnat)

“Gently, without seeming to, he dismantles everything and begins all over again. Seduced, the actors purr, stretch, arch their backs under the velvet glove” (Gaston Modot)

“In the thick of his nebula, like a medium, Renoir springs to life. He agitates it, turns it this way and that, kneads it, places it, fixes it. He could say, with Picasso, “i do not seek, i find.” (Gaston Modot)

“a gigantic silhouette on the horizon of our waning century” (Orson Welles)

“Jean Renoir thinks he’s a collective” (Film Review)

“Everyone has their reasons” (The Rules of the Game)

" There is not one character in The Rules of the Game who’s worth the bother of saving" (Jean Renoir)

“When i make a film i am asking others to influence me” (Jean Renoir)

“We want to encourage plagiarism” (Jean Renoir)

“What Hollywood really needs is a good bombing” (Jean Renoir)

“Pottery, of all the arts, is the nearest to cinema” (Jean Renoir)

“To the question, ‘Is the cinema an art?’ my answer is, ‘what does it matter?’… You can make films or you can cultivate a garden. Both have as much claim to being called an art as a poem by Verlaine or a painting by Delacroix… Art is ‘making.’ The art of poetry is the art of making poetry. The art of love is the art of making love… My father never talked to me about art. He could not bear the word.” (Jean Renoir)

“My chief aim was the one which I have been pursuing ever since I started making films—to express the common humanity of man.” (Jean Renoir)

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Reading:

Ray Durgnat- Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir- My Life and my Films
Alexander Sesonske: Jean Renoir: The French Films, 1924-39

James Leahy article at Senses of Cinema site: Jean Renoir
Jonathan Rosenbaum article: On Jean Renoir

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Renoiresque and Renoir-influenced films:

L’Atalante
Le Jour se Leve
Aniki Bobo
Ossessione
Scarlet Street
The Postman Always Rings Twice
Le Plaisir
Casque d’Or
Smiles of a Summer Night
Pather Panchali
Night of the Hunter
Jules et Jim
Charulata
Pierrot le Fou
Days and Nights in the Forest
Claire’s Knee
Celine and Julie go Boating
They all Laughed
Sunday in the Country
Life and Nothing But
Topsy Turvy
The Town is Quiet
Gosford Park
Blissfully Yours
Couscous
Darjeeling Ltd

other suggestions please.

Directors who’ve picked Renoir films in their top 10s for Sight and Sound polls and elsewhere:

Rohmer, Rivette, Almodovar, Beineix, Bertolucci, Ghose, Lester, Mazursky, Rainer, Schlesinger, Schrader, Syberberg, J.Lee Thompson, Roy Andersson, Beresford, Crowe, Brian Gilbert, Hamilton, Loach, McBride, MacDonald, Assayas, Nicholas Meyer, Errol Morris, Newell, Pollack, Reisz, Robbins, Rudolph, Mrinal Sen, Sluizer, Miguel Gomes, Kaurismaki, Pia Marais, Hong Sang-Soo, Paul Verhoeven, Leigh, Woody Allen, Tavernier, Wes Anderson, Aoyama Shinji, Shirin Neshat, Scorsese..

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My favourites:

Rules of the Game
A Day in the Country
Grand Illusion
Boudu Saved from Drowning
The River
The Golden Coach
Toni
Le Crime de Monsieur Lange
La Bete Humaine
La Nuit du Carrefour
French Cancan

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The list below is of his films on mubi in chronological order

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