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19TH CENTURY BRITAIN

by Kenji
Click on Read More and then the green links. The Elephant Man . Chronology of the British century: related films in heavy print. I’ve enjoyed doing this, and learned quite a bit along the way. Hope it’s of interest. 1800-25 Robert Owen (b.Newtown, Wales, 1771) takes over management of New Lanark mills, Scotland, establishes a model community, the first Infant School in the world, a creche for working mothers, free medical care, and a comprehensive education system for children, including evening classes for adults 1801 Acts of Union create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1804 The world’s first railway journey near Merthyr… Read more

Click on Read More and then the green links. The Elephant Man .

Chronology of the British century: related films in heavy print. I’ve enjoyed doing this, and learned quite a bit along the way. Hope it’s of interest.

1800-25 Robert Owen (b.Newtown, Wales, 1771) takes over management of New Lanark mills, Scotland, establishes a model community, the first Infant School in the world, a creche for working mothers, free medical care, and a comprehensive education system for children, including evening classes for adults
1801 Acts of Union create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1804 The world’s first railway journey near Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, with Trevithick’s steam locomotive
1805 Horatio Nelson (b.1758) dies at the battle of Trafalgar: That Hamilton Woman
1806 Birth of Isambard Kingdom Brunel (died 1859), civil engineer : Great (Isambard Kingdom Brunel)
1807 The world’s first passenger railway, Swansea to Mumbles, Wales
Slave Trade act, following campaign to abolish slavery led by William Wilberforce
1808 William Blake’s poem Jerusalem
John Dalton’s A New System of Chemical Philosophy
1809-10 The Lines of Torres Vedras, system of defensive forts, built in Portugal on Wellington’s orders to repel the French in the Napoleonic wars
1811 Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility
1813 Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
1815 The Battle of Waterloo: Waterloo
Humphrey Davy invents the Miners’ Safety lamp
1816 Jane Austen’s Emma
1817 Jane Austen’s Persuasion
1818 Mary Shelley’s Frankensten
1819 The Peterloo Massacre, Manchester.
1820 Death of “mad” King George III: The Madness of King George
1821 John Keats dies: Bright Star
John Constable’s painting The Hay Wain
1823 Birth near Usk, Wales of Alfred Russel Wallace, father of bio-geography, social reformer, co-originator of theory of evolution by natural selection
1824 Lord George “mad, bad and dangerous to know” Byron (b.1788) dies fighting for Greek independence from Turkey
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, physicist, mathematician, engineer, born Belfast
1827-8 Burke and Hare serial murders, Edinburgh, Scotland, with corpses sold for dissection
1829 Sir Robert Peel establishes Metropolitan Police force
George Stevenson’s Rocket.
“Captain Swing” riots
1830 Birth in England of Eadweard Muybridge, photographer and film pioneer in USA
1832 Death of Jemima Nicholas (b1755) who led the women of Pembrokeshire, Wales to capture the French in the last invasion of Britain, 1798.
The Great Reform Act, giving more men the vote
1833 Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire
1834 The “Tolpuddle martyrs” convicted and transported to Australia: Comrades
Poor Law Amendment Act
1837 Queen Victoria’s long reign (to 1901) begins: Victoria the Great, Mädchenjahre einer Königin
“The People’s Charter”, advocating working class votes, published.
1837-9 Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist
1838 Myall Creek massacre, Australia, is the first Aboriginal massacre (after many) for which British settlers successfully convicted
1839 J.M.W. Turner’s painting The Fighting Temeraire: Mr.Turner
1839-42 First Anglo-Chinese Opium War
1842 William Grove of Swansea, Wales, develops the first fuel cell
Friedrich Engels meets Karl Marx in Manchester, where working conditions influence their thinking
Law bans women and children from working in mines
1843 Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol
1845 Elizabeth Barrett meets Robert Browning: The Barretts of Wimpole Street
1845-52 The Great Irish Potato Famine
1847 Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre
Birth of Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish inventor of the telephone
Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights
1849-50 Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield
1850 William Wordsworth dies, Alfred Lord Tennyson becomes Poet Laureate
1851 The Great Crystal Palace Exhibition
1853-6 The Crimean War: The Charge of the Light Brigade
1854 Birth of Oscar Wilde, Irish writer (died 1900): Wilde, The Trials of Oscar Wilde
1855 Birth of William Friese-Greene (died 1921), film pioneer: The Magic Box
Ford Madox Brown’s painting The Last of England (observe the hands!)
1855-57 Dickens’ Little Dorrit
1856-60 Second Anglo-Chinese Opium War; China forced to continue tolerating British opium trade
1857 Indian Sepoy Rebellion suppressed, beginning of the Raj, rule of India taken over by the Crown from the East India company
1857-8 Expedition of Sir Richard Burton and John Speke in East Africa in search of the source of the Nile: Mountains of the Moon
Madeleine Smith is tried for poisoning her secret lover: Madeleine
1858 Robert Owen, socialist reformer, father of Cooperative movement, dies.
Theory of evolution by natural selection outlined by Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin
“The Great Stink”: with London overwhelmed by an unbearable pong, Joseph Bazalgette starts to design the London sewerage system
1859 Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species
Wilkie Collins’ The Woman in White
1860-61 Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations
1861 Prince Albert dies (John Brown becomes Queen Victoria’s personal servant): Mrs Brown
Pryce Pryce-Jones of Newtown, Wales inaugurates Mail Order shopping
1862 Birth of John Merrick, The Elephant Man
1863 Football Association formed in England
1865 Joseph Lister invents antiseptic surgery
Michael Jones establishes a free Welsh settlement in Patagonia, Argentina
1868 William Gladstone becomes Liberal Prime Minister the first of record 4 times
First Trade Union Congress
1870 Education Act, to provide state education for all
1871 Welsh-American explorer Henry Stanley meets Scottish explorer David Livingstone at Ujiji, Lake Tanganyika
Bank Holiday Act provides workers with holidays
1872 World’s first football international match, Scotland v England
1874 George Elliot’s (née Mary Anne Evans), Middlemarch
Thomas Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd
Major Walter Wingfield invents lawn tennis- which he named Sphairistikè (Greek for “ball games”)- in Wales
1875 Captain Matthew Webb swims the English Channel/La Manche
1877 Trinity Church’s lease of Manhattan land from Welsh buccaneer Robert Edwards expires, but his descendants still await their due
1879 Battle of Rorke’s Drift in the Anglo-Zulu war : Zulu
First electro-magnetic radio waves transmission by David Hughes, Anglo-Welsh inventor, musician, well before Hertz and Marconi
1880-81 First (Anglo-) Boer war
1881-99 Anglo-Sudanese war: The Four Feathers
1882 England lose at home to Australia at cricket and “the Ashes” contest is born
1883 Scottish novelist Robert Louis Stevenson’s serialised Treasure Island published as book
1884-5 Battle of Khartoum in Sudan : Khartoum
1885 Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado: Topsy Turvy
1886 Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
1887 First Sherlock Holmes story (A Study in Scarlet), by Scottish writer, physician Sir Arthur Conan Doyle: The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes
1888 First films of Louis le Prince: Roundhay Garden Scene, Crossing Leeds Bridge
Local Government Act: after decades of the cruel “Welsh Not”, instruction in Welsh in elementary schools becomes the norm in Welsh-speaking areas
1889 Charlie Chaplin born
1890 Future Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George is elected to Parliament
The Forth Rail bridge opens in Scotland
The first electric underground trains in London
1891 Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Tess
J.M.Barrie’s Little Minister
1893 Eccentric Welsh physician William Price (b.1800) dies, is controversially cremated
Cadbury model village for workers at Bournville. Birmingham
1895 Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of being Earnest
Bill Frost’s flying machine in Pembrokeshire, Wales
1896 Alexandre Promio films Liverpool Scenes
1897 Dracula published: Bram Stoker’s Dracula
Marconi sends the first wireless communication over open sea, transversing the Bristol Channel from Lavernock Point (South Wales) to Flat Holm Island
1898 Black composer Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s cantata Hiawatha’s Wedding Feast
1898-1901 “Boxer” rebellion, China, against imperialists and opium traders
1899 Polish-Born Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (transposed as Apocalypse Now)
Alfred Hitchcock born, London
1899-1902 Second Boer War (concentration camps set up by British)

Great Expectations

Bright Star

Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art—
Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night
And watching, with eternal lids apart,
Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite,
The moving waters at their priestlike task
Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores,
Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask
Of snow upon the mountains and the moors—
No—yet still stedfast, still unchangeable,
Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast,
To feel for ever its soft fall and swell,
Awake for ever in a sweet unrest,
Still, still to hear her tender-taken breath,
And so live ever—or else swoon to death.

Suggested films and events for chronology welcome. This is not a fully comprehensive list as there are many versions of famous novels.

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